Nanotechnology and Genetic Engineering


Structures

Nanotechnology has basic structures. The structure includes nano-particles (nano-crystals), nano-layers, and nano tubes. The most basic is nano particles. These particles are often called crystals because of how their atoms are arranged. Their atoms are arranged in a crystalline structure. They are 100 nm in diameter. A nano-particle is one-billionth of a meter. Nano-layers are exactly what they sound like. They are a layer of material no think than a few nanometers. Nano-tubes are primarily a sheet of graphite (carbon) that has folded over to form a tube. Physically, a carbon nano-tube is stronger, ductile, and more elastic than any other manmade material.

Nano-tube, Nano-particles
Nano-tube, Nano-particles

Nano-tube
Nano-tube

GMOs & Genetic Engineering

So, you’re wondering what in the world are GMOs or genetic engineering ever since you laid your eyes on this pamphlet. Well, to answer this question that must be gnawing at your brain, GMOs, also called genetic modified organisms, or genetic engineering is the changing of the makeup of organisms like animals, foods like corn and cows, and bacteria. There are many names for the process of combining different genes from different living things to make an improvement of something or something new. This process is not to be confused with selective breeding, where farmers or breeders influence the genes of a species in a roundabout way. In genetic engineering, scientists would uses processes of cloning, or make a replicate of something, or just change them to change their characteristics completely.


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Genetic engineering in a tomato.

The Process

There are many processes for genetic engineering. But the main steps are at least five of them that are important and they are:

1. Separate the wanted gene by itself.

2. Add in the genes into a transport vector (a DNA or molecular vehicle or medium to transport genes into other genes).

3. Putting the vector to the gene that is going to be altered.

4. The alteration of gene or organism.

5. The choosing of the altered organism or what is now GMO from the ones that failed the process of alteration.

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Plant Genes

Benefits and Controversies

Just like any new invention to come in existence into the world, no human is sure of this discorvery 100%. That's when tests come into place as well as experiments to prove their theories of this contraption as an improvement for good, or a disadvantage for the bad. So, is Genetic energy and Nanotechnology for the best? Or worst?

Benefits
Crops:
-Better taste and quality
-More nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance.
-Improved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides
-New products and techniques
Animals:
-Increased resistance productivity, toughness, and feed efficiency
-Better meat, eggs, and milk.
-Improved animal health and diagnostic methods
Environment
-"Friendly" bioherbicides and bionsecticides
-Conservation of soil, water, and energy
-Bioprocessing for forestry products
-Better natural waste management
-More efficient processing
Society:
- Increased food security for growing population


Disadvantages
Safety:
-Potential human health impacts, including allergens, transfer of antibiotic resistance markers, unknown effects
-Potential environmental impacts, including: cross pollination, unknown effects on other organisms, and loss of flora and flauna biodiversity
Access and Intellectial Property:
-Domination of world food production by a few companies
-Increasing dependence on industrialized nations by developing coutries
-Biopiracy, or foreign exploitation of natural resources
Ethics:
-Violation of natural organisms' instrinsic values
-Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species
-Objection to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa
-Stress for animals
Labeling:
-Not mandatory in some countries
-Mixing GM crops with non-GM products confounds labeling attempts
Society:
-New advances may be moved to interests of richer countries


Other Facts About GMOs or Genetic Engineering

· Recombinant DNA technology – the mix of genes from different living things => makes GMOs or “genetically engineered” or “transgenic"

· GMOs are mostly used in areas of agriculture and medical

- Ex. Of Agriculture: making genetically altered cows that are prone to Mad Cow disease

- Ex. Of Medical: the making of the artificial human insulin that was approved by the FDA in 1982

· Human Genetic Engineering – used to find ways to cure genetic diseases

· GMFs – another name for Genetically Modified Foods – the crops and animals that were genetically altered or cloned that we eat

- Very controversial

o Some people think that scientists are playing God

o It might make people sick.

o The unfamiliar effects of the GMFs or GMOs if you eat them

o The loss of the original, non-altered organisms

o Pressure on the organisms might make them stressed out

- Over the last 5yrs., the U.S. has planted more than 90 million acres of genetically modified crops

- In 2006, the U.S. has 53% of the transgenic crops of the world.

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http://www.itmonline.org/image/gmo3.jpg
http://www.itmonline.org/image/gmo3.jpg
Genetically Modified Organisms
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Genetic Engineering in an apple.
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Negative Effects


A Positive affect.

Nanotechnology is used in our environment today. One of its main attributes to our society is the fact that some of the technologies may help new ways of finding pollutants and even cleaning polluted areas in the world.

Can Nanotechnology affect our Personal Life?

Not only is nanotechnology used in our environment but it is also used to better our personal wants and living experiences. Things such as stain resistant pants are being created now with nanotechnology. They are not only successfully using it but now they are safely using it. Scientists make sure that these nanotechnologies are in no way harmful to the environment before placing them into our world.


Stain resistance pants afected by Nanotechnology!
Stain resistance pants afected by Nanotechnology!

How can nanotechnology could be used?

Several countries are investing in nanotechnology in hope that it will help them in the area of agriculture. New nanotechnology is being created that will and in some places currently is helping the production of crops and also the affordability of the material being processed. An instance in which this may happen is if nanotechnology was used on a cow to make the cow produce a lot of milk or meat depending on what is needed. This poses advantages for the consumer dropping the cost on such things as meat and dairy products. The technology used on animals has only been used for experimental purposes so far because it is thought that one day altered food can cause serious health problems.


Moo! Please dont gentically engineer me =(
Moo! Please dont gentically engineer me =(


FUN FACT!

A piece of human hair is approximately 100,000 nanometers wide!
Hair =)
Hair =)